Crypto-Driven Financial Vulnerabilities in Emerging Markets: Analysis from BIS Papers


Cryptocurrencies, once hailed as potential solutions to financial challenges in emerging markets, have instead exacerbated the financial risks in these economies, as revealed by a recent study conducted and published by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS).

The study, titled “Financial stability risks from crypto assets in emerging market economies,” was released on August 22 by the Consultative Group of Directors of Financial Stability (CGDFS). Collaboratively conducted by BIS member central banks, including those in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States, the study emphasized that the opinions expressed within the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the stance of the BIS.

The study shed light on the allure of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which have been marketed as cost-effective payment solutions, alternatives for financial access, and substitutes for national currencies in economies facing high inflation or exchange rate volatility. However, contrary to their advertised benefits, the study revealed that cryptocurrencies have not only failed to fulfill their intended objectives but have also heightened financial instability in emerging markets. In response to this increased risk, the report highlighted a spectrum of policy options available to authorities, ranging from outright bans to regulatory frameworks.

While the authors acknowledged the potential positive applications of cryptocurrency technology, they cautioned against excessive regulatory prohibitions that might drive crypto-related activities underground. Instead, the study suggested the creation of a regulatory structure that guides innovative efforts toward socially constructive directions, while acknowledging the challenge this presents.

One notable concern raised in the study was the risk posed by Bitcoin exchange-traded funds (ETFs) in emerging markets. These products could potentially lower entry barriers for less sophisticated investors, thereby increasing their exposure to risk. The study also pointed out scenarios where Bitcoin ETF investors could face substantial losses even without directly holding crypto assets, and how certain ETFs based on crypto futures might amplify market volatility.

The study’s focus on “emerging markets” raises questions about the exact jurisdictions included in this classification. Some countries, like China and Pakistan, have maintained strict regulations on cryptocurrencies, making it uncertain whether the findings would apply equally to these regions. Additionally, the report does not elaborate on whether the situation differs in more developed economies.

The BIS, however, did not respond immediately to queries seeking comment from sources. While the report doesn’t necessarily reflect BIS’s official stance, it aligns with the institution’s cautious approach to cryptocurrency adoption. A previous report by the BIS highlighted concerns around issues such as stablecoin instability and the perceived irrevocability of smart contracts. In contrast, the institution expressed optimism regarding central bank digital currencies, viewing them as foundational for future monetary systems and innovative advancements.

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